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Kobolds who live in human homes wear the clothing of peasants; those who live in mines are hunched and ugly; kobolds who live on ships smoke pipes and wear sailor clothing.
Legends tell of three major types of kobolds. Most commonly, the creatures are house spirits of ambivalent nature; while they sometimes perform domestic chores, they play malicious tricks if insulted or neglected.
Famous kobolds of this type include King Goldemar , Heinzelmann , and Hödekin. In some regions, kobolds are known by local names, such as the Galgenmännlein of southern Germany and the Heinzelmännchen of Cologne.
Another type of kobold haunts underground places, such as mines. A third kind of kobold, the Klabautermann , lives aboard ships and helps sailors.
Kobold beliefs are evidence of the survival of pagan customs after the Christianisation of Germany. Such pagan practices may have derived from beliefs in the mischievous kobalos of ancient Greece, the household lares and penates of ancient Rome, or native German beliefs in a similar room spirit called kofewalt whose name is a possible rootword of the modern kobold or a German dialectal variant.
This may indicate a common origin for these creatures, or it may represent cultural borrowings and influences of European peoples upon one another.
Similarly, subterranean kobolds may share their origins with creatures such as gnomes and dwarves and the aquatic Klabautermann with similar water spirits.
The name of the element cobalt comes from the creature's name, because medieval miners blamed the sprite for the poisonous and troublesome nature of the typical arsenical ores of this metal cobaltite and smaltite which polluted other mined elements.
The kobold's origins are obscure. Sources equate the domestic kobold with creatures such as the English boggart , hobgoblin and pixy , the Scottish brownie , and the Scandinavian nisse or tomte ;      while they align the subterranean variety with the Norse dwarf and the Cornish knocker.
Kobold beliefs represent the survival of pagan customs into the Christian and modern eras and offer hints of how pagan Europeans worshipped in the privacy of their homes.
One example, known as the monoloke , was made from white wax and wore a blue shirt and black velvet vest. Several competing etymologies for kobold have been suggested.
In , Otto Schrader traced the word to kuba-walda , meaning "the one who rules the house". The suffix -old means "to rule". Grimm has provided one of the earlier and more commonly accepted [ dubious — discuss ] [ citation needed ] etymologies for kobold ,  tracing the word's origin through the Latin cobalus to the Greek koba'los , meaning " rogue ".
The change to the word-final -olt is a feature of the German language used for monsters and supernatural beings.
Variants of kobold appear as early as the 13th century. Another class of kobold lives in underground places. Folklorists have proposed that the mine kobold derives from the beliefs of the ancient Germanic people.
Scottish historical novelist Walter Scott has suggested that the Proto-Norse based the kobolds on the short-statured Finns, Lapps, and Latvians who fled their invasions and sought shelter in northern European caves and mountains.
There they put their skills at smithing to work and, in the beliefs of the proto-Norse, came to be seen as supernatural beings. These beliefs spread, becoming the kobold, the Germanic gnome , [ dubious — discuss ] the French goblin and the Scottish bogle.
German writer Heinrich Smidt believed that the sea kobolds, or Klabautermann , entered German folklore via German sailors who had learned about them in England.
However, historians David Kirby and Merja-Liisa Hinkkanen dispute this, claiming no evidence of such a belief in Britain.
An alternate view connects the Klabautermann myths with the story of Saint Phocas of Sinope. As that story spread from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea.
Scholar Reinhard Buss instead sees the Klabautermann as an amalgamation of early and pre-Christian beliefs mixed with new creatures.
Kobolds are spirits and, as such, part of a spiritual realm. However, as with other European spirits, they often dwell among the living.
Many of these names are modifications of common German given names, such as Heinrich abbreviated to Heinze , Joachim, and Walther. Kobolds may manifest as animals, fire, human beings, and objects.
A tale from the Altmark , recorded by Anglo-Saxon scholar Benjamin Thorpe in , describes the kobold as "a fiery stripe with a broad head, which he usually shakes from one side to the other Kobolds who live in human homes are generally depicted as humanlike, dressed as peasants, and standing about as tall as a four-year-old child.
According to dramatist and novelist X. Saintine , kobolds are the spirits of dead children and often appear with a knife that represents the means by which they were put to death.
Legends variously describe mine kobolds as 0. We were about to sit down to tea when Mdlle. Gronin called our attention to the steady light, round, and about the size of a cheese plate, which appeared suddenly on the wall of the little garden directly opposite the door of the hut in which we sat.
Before any of us could rise to examine it, four more lights appeared almost simultaneously, about the same shape, and varying only in size.
Surrounding each one was the dim outline of a small human figure, black and grotesque, more like a little image carved out of black shining wood, than anything else I can liken them to.
Dorothea kissed her hands to these dreadful little shapes, and Michael bowed with great reverence. As for me and my companions, we were so awe-struck yet amused at these comical shapes, that we could not move or speak until they themselves seemed to flit about in a sort of wavering dance, and then vanish, one by one.
The same informant claimed to later have seen the kobolds first-hand. She described them as "diminutive black dwarfs about two or three feet in height, and at that part which in the human being is occupied by the heart, they carry the round luminous circle first described, an appearance which is much more frequently seen than the little black men themselves.
Other kobolds appear as animals. Ashliman has reported kobolds appearing as wet cats and hens,  and Arrowsmith and Moorse mention kobolds in the shape of bats, cats, roosters, snakes, and worms.
Most often, kobolds remain completely invisible. The kobold's fingers were childlike, and his face was like a skull, without body heat.
The kobold refuses, claiming that to look upon him would be terrifying. Undeterred, the maid insists, and the kobold tells her to meet him later—and to bring along a pail of cold water.
The kobold waits for the maid, nude and with a butcher knife in his back. The maid faints at the sight, and the kobold wakes her with the cold water.
For example, Heinzelmann tricked a nobleman into thinking that the kobold was hiding in a jug. When the nobleman covered the jug's mouth to trap the creature, the kobold chided him:.
If I had not heard long ago from other people that you were a fool, I might now have known it of myself, since you thought I was sitting in an empty jug, and went to cover it up with your hand, as if you had me caught.
I don't think you worth the trouble, or I would have given you, long since, such a lesson, that you should remember me long enough.
But before long you will get a slight ducking. When a man threw ashes and tares about to try to see King Goldemar's footprints, the kobold cut him to pieces, put him on a spit, roasted him, boiled his legs and head, and ate him.
In , Keightley noted that the Heinzelmänchen "[had] totally disappeared, as has been everywhere the case, owing to the curiosity of people, which has at all times been the destruction of so much of what was beautiful in the world.
Domestic kobolds are linked to a specific household. One tradition claims that the kobold enters the household by announcing itself at night by strewing wood chips about the house and putting dirt or cow manure in the milk cans.
If the master of the house leaves the wood chips and drinks the soiled milk, the kobold takes up residence. He must go on St John's Day between noon and one o'clock, into the forest.
When he finds an anthill with a bird on it, he must say a certain phrase, which causes the bird to transform into a small person.
The figure then leaps into a bag carried by the homeowner, and he can then transfer the kobold to his home. House kobolds usually live in the hearth area of a house,  although some tales place them in less frequented parts of the home, in the woodhouse,  in barns and stables, or in the beer cellar of an inn.
At night, such kobolds do chores that the human occupants neglected to finish before bedtime:  They chase away pests, clean the stables, feed and groom the cattle and horses, scrub the dishes and pots, and sweep the kitchen.
A Cologne legend recorded by Keightley claims that bakers in the city in the early 19th century never needed hired help because, each night, the kobolds known as Heinzelmänchen made as much bread as a baker could need.
A kobold can bring wealth to his household in the form of grain and gold. Despite standing only about a foot tall, the creature could carry a load of rye in his mouth for the people with whom he lived and did so daily as long as he received a meal of biscuits and milk.
Kobolds bring good luck and help their hosts as long as the hosts take care of them. The kobold Heinzelmann found things that had been lost.
The man ignored the advice, only to have his gun backfire and shoot off his thumb. Heinzelman appeared to him and said, "See, now, you have got what I warned you of!
If you had refrained from shooting this time, this mischance would not have befallen you. When the bishop acted on the information, he was able to take over the murderer's lands and add them to his bishopric.
In return, the family must leave a portion of their supper or beer, for the biersal - see Hödfellow to the spirit and must treat the kobold with respect, never mocking or laughing at the creature.
A kobold expects to be fed in the same place at the same time each day,  or in the case of the Hütchen, once a week and on holidays.
He demanded a place at the table and a stall for his horses. Legends tell of slighted kobolds becoming quite malevolent and vengeful,   afflicting errant hosts with supernatural diseases, disfigurements, and injuries.
Heinzelmann threatened him, and the nobleman fled. Hodeken waited for the servant to go to sleep and then strangled him, tore him limb from limb, and threw him in a pot over the fire.
The cook chastised the spirit for this behaviour, so Hodeken threw him over the drawbridge into the moat. Archibald Maclaren has attributed kobold behaviour to the virtue of the homeowners; a virtuous house has a productive and helpful kobold; a vice-filled one has a malicious and mischievous pest.
If the hosts give up those things to which the kobold objects, the spirit ceases its annoying behaviour. The student who had left the meal alone felt the kobold's touch as "gentle and soothing", but the one who had eaten its food felt that "the fingers of the hand were pointed with poisoned arrowheads, or fanged with fire.
They hide things, push people over when they bend to pick something up, and make noise at night to keep people awake.
Folktales tell of people trying to rid themselves of mischievous kobolds. In one tale, a man with a kobold-haunted barn puts all the straw onto a cart, burns the barn down, and sets off to start anew.
As he rides away, he looks back and sees the kobold sitting behind him. He sees the kobold preparing to move too and realises that he cannot rid himself of the creature.
Nevertheless, the invisible kobold travelled along with them as a white feather, which they discovered when they stayed at an inn.
Why do you retire from me? I can easily follow you anywhere, and be where you are. It is much better for you to return to your own estate, and not be quitting it on my account.
You see well that if I wished it I could take away all you have, but I am not inclined to do so. Exorcism by a Christian priest works in some tales; the bishop of Hildesheim managed to exorcise Hödekin from the castle.
Medieval European miners believed in underground spirits. The kobold filled this role in German folklore and is similar to other creatures of the type, such as the English bluecap , Cornish knocker and the Welsh coblynau.
Stories of subterranean kobolds were common in Germany by the 16th century. Superstitious miners believed the creatures to be expert miners and metalworkers who could be heard constantly drilling, hammering, and shoveling.
Some stories claim that the kobolds live in the rock, just as human beings live in the air. Legends often paint underground kobolds as evil creatures.
In medieval mining towns, people prayed for protection from them. For example, 16th-century miners sometimes encountered what looked to be rich veins of copper or silver, but which, when smelted, proved to be little more than a pollutant and could even be poisonous.
Tales from other parts of Germany make mine kobolds beneficial creatures, at least if they are treated respectfully. They interpreted such noises as warnings from the kobolds to not go in that direction.
In these depictions, they are content to simply mine ore themselves, collect it, and haul it away by windlass. The Klabautermann also spelt Klaboterman and Klabotermann is a creature from the beliefs of fishermen and sailors of Germany's north coast, the Netherlands, and the Baltic Sea , and may represent a third type of kobold   or possibly a different spirit that has merged with kobold traditions.
Belief in the Klabautermann dates to at least the s. It enters the ship via the wood used to build it, and it may appear as a ship's carpenter.
The Klabautermann's benevolent behaviour lasts as long as the crew and captain treat the creature respectfully. In order to measure the flow rates in industrial plants or to test the composition of the liquid flowing through, Kobold Messring GmbH has developed a series of flow sensors and flow meters, which can be used in a wide variety of working environments.
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